The sand plasticity model described here was developed and implemented by Boulanger (2010 version 1), Boulanger and Ziotopoulou (2012 version 2), and Boulanger and Ziotopoulou (2015 version 3) for geotechnical earthquake engineering applications. This model follows the basic-framework of the stress-ratio controlled, critical state compatible, bounding surface plasticity model for sand presented by Dafalias and Manzari (2004). Modifications to the model were implemented to improve its ability to approximate the stress-strain responses important to geotechnical earthquake engineering applications.
- effective stress
- pore pressure
- seismic loading
Boulanger, R. W., and Ziotopoulou, K. (2015). “PM4Sand (version 3): A sand plasticity model for earthquake engineering applications.” Report No. UCD/CGM-15/01, Center for Geotechnical Modeling, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Davis, CA, March, 112 pp.